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evolution

How are sharks equally related to bony fish and us?

This is one of my favorite evolutionary riddles.

The Chondrichthyes, encompassing sharks, skates, and rays, look like fish. They have gills and swim in the ocean like fish. We call them fish. So they must be fish, right?

Well, It depends on how you define fish. If you assign fish-dom based on things they all share, i.e. floppy slimy creatures who live underwater, breathe through gills, and swim with pairs of fins instead of limbs, then sure, sharks are fish and humans aren’t. However, if you define fish like we do in evolutionary biology, humans, dogs, tortoises, parrots, and sharks are friends, not food right alongside Dory and Nemo.

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Why don’t bees have lungs?

For my brilliant friend, Iris, who rightly calls my scientific perspective two parts beautiful and inspiring and one part absolutely horrifying, and who really, really likes reminding me that bees don’t have lungs.

On April 15th, 2019, the world watched in horror as a thousand years of sacred innovation and artistry collapsed in ash and rubble. Thankfully, no humans were harmed in the fire, but people were concerned about the honeybee colonies that lived high atop the rooftops of Notre Dame de Paris. How could they possibly survive the smoke and ash pouring from the crumbling spires?

When the skies finally cleared, the city breathed a sigh of relief at the familiar sight of bees buzzing around the eaves of the cathedral. The bees were unharmed. It seemed like a miracle from Ambrose, patron saint of bees and their keepers.

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